Report series 14. Non-Custodial Alternatives in Europe

By Norman Bishop, Helsinki 1988 second printing 1988. ISBN 951-47-1444-X (364 pages). (Out of print). The scanned version available
The report is a comparative analysis of the use of non-custodial punishment in 28 European countries. It begins with a review of criminal policy aims and ambitions in these 28 countries, and an analysis of the means to achieve these ends. The main part of the report discusses the legislated non-custodial measures, the difficulties that arise with alternatives to imprisonment, and the acceptability and effectiveness of these alternatives. It ends with a detailed set of conclusions and recommendations for policy. The publication also contains the responses from the 28 countries on the central questions in the study.